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Gabronemoses (Habronemoses), helminthiasis of doxycycline pills caused by nematodes Habronema muscae and H. microstoma fam. Habronematidae. Widespread throughout, especially in the south. zones of the USSR. Gabronemosis and drascheiasis of horses.
The disease is caused by three species of nematodes of the family Spiruridae, suborder Spirurat. Gabronemes live in the lumen of the stomach, penetrating with their head end into the glandular part, and drashees are localized in tumor-like formations of the gastric wall with fistula passages. The 3rd stage larvae of H. musceae infect the skin and lungs, while the larvae of D. microstoma cause only skin lesions.
Nematodes are 7 to 25 mm long and up to 0.55 mm wide. The mouth opening is surrounded by four lips and leads into a cylindrical capsule. A distinctive feature of Drascheia megastoma is that the region of the lips protrudes in relief and is separated from the body by a sharp intercept. In gabronemes, the region of the lips is not distinguished and is not separated by any intercepts. In Habronema microstoma, the length of the large spicule is less than 1 mm, in H. muscea it is more than 2 mm. In females D. megastoma and H. muscae, the vulva is located in the anterior part of the body, H. microstoma in the posterior third of the body length (Fig. 49).
Helminths in places of localization lay eggs, which are excreted with feces. The eggs contain fully formed larvae. Later, the eggs are swallowed by the larvae of the flies. After pupation in the body of adult insects, helminth larvae reach the invasive stage in 13–15 days.
Biology of development. The causative agents of diseases are biohelminths. Definitive hosts - horses, donkeys, mules, intermediate - flies. house fly (M. domestica) and autumn stallion for D. megastoma, H. muscae and autumn stallion (Stomoxys calcitrans) for H. microstoma.